When a jet engine flies overhead, the people of Sudan’s Nuba Mountains flee to cobra-infested caves in a desperate bid for shelter. The only reminders of the modern world in this region are the bombs that shake Earth on a daily basis and rattle the foundation of Sudan’s once-peaceful homeland.

In many parts of Sudan, no one is safe. For millions of civilians, the struggle to stay alive is constant.

Sudan is not the only African country facing terrorist threats.

From Nigeria to Somalia, to the Democratic Republic of Congo, to Sudan, and the Central African Republic, the outbreak of terrorism in Africa is becoming a threatening issue.

According to Jessica Reuther, a visiting assistant professor of history at Ball State University, there are four prominent terrorist networks spread across Africa that pose significant threats to the continent. These networks are Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram, the Lord’s Resistance Army, and Al Qaeda.

Reuther said most of the networks were established in the 1990s and have recently become more active as international networks fund Islamic fundamentalism. This, according to Reuther, opens up opportunities for larger-scale attacks.

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